- Hypospadias and epispadias are forms of abnormal development of the urethra in the male, where the meatus is not located at the distal end of the penis (it occurs lower than normal with hypospadias, and higher with epispadias). In a severe chordee, the urethra can develop between the penis and the scrotum.
- Infection of the urethra is urethritis, said to be more common in females than males. Urethritis is a common cause of dysuria (pain when urinating).
- Related to urethritis is so called urethral syndrome
- Passage of kidney stones through the urethra can be painful, which can lead to urethral strictures.
- Cancer of the urethra.
- Foreign bodies in the urethra are uncommon, but there have been medical case reports of self-inflicted injuries, a result of insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra such as an electrical wire.
InvestigationsThere is a common misconception among males that women urinate through the vagina.
- Endoscopy of the bladder via the urethra is called cystoscopy.
- Urine cytology.